Sunday, August 23, 2009

The Partition and the Muslim Minorities of West Bengal, 1947-1967



Introduction

The studies on the aftermath of Bengal Partition rarely focus on the Muslim Minorities of West Bengal. Even recent scholarship on the ‘Bengal Muslims’ primarily deals with the condition of the Muslims in pre- Partition Bengal and then concentrates on East Bengal/East Pakistan after partition, which is now called Bangladesh. Quite surprisingly, these studies do not cover the Muslims of West Bengals after Partition. The Muslims of West Bengal were marginalised not only in the socio-economic and cultural milieu of post-Independence/Partition West Bengal but also in the academic research. The condition of the Muslims of West Bengal after Partition has not received due attention in academic circle with a very few exceptions. What actually happened to the Muslims of West Bengal after partition? What did Partition mean to them? How did it affect their lives and the mode of thinking? What was their survival strategy in the face of the crucial post Partition situation? All these questions are still awaiting answer. The progressive backwardness of the Muslims of West Bengal identified recently in the Sachhar Committee Report might have some roots in the Partition of the province. The present paper is an attempt to audit the impact of the Partition on the Muslims of West Bengal.

Muslims in Pre-Partition Bengal: Social Origin and Differentiation
Rafiuddin Ahmed, Asim Roy, Richard M. Eaton, Tazeen M.Murshid and a number of scholars contributed largely towards our understanding of the Muslims of Bengal in pre-Partition period. Islam reached Bengal in the thirteenth century after it had become a part of the Turkish Sultanate and grown rapidly with time. It was a very interesting and complex process. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the British government became aware of the huge concentration of Muslim population in the rural areas of eastern part of Bengal. The Muslims outnumbered the Hindus by the end of the century. The Census of 1872 surprised the British officials regarding the presence of a huge Muslim population in the eastern part of Bengal and prompted them to investigate the phenomenon seriously.
Several theories sprang up to explain the growth of Islam in Bengal. Richard Eaton has categorized them into four viz. immigration theories, religion of the sword thesis, religion of patronage theory and religion of social liberation thesis.
According to the immigration theory, the bulk of India’s Muslims descended from other Muslims who had either migrated overland from the Iranian plateau or sailed across the Arabian Sea. This process undoubtedly contributed to the Islamization of those areas of South Asia that are geographically contiguous with the Iranian Plateau or the Arabian Sea. However, this argument cannot explain the mass Islamization in Bengal.
The religion of the sword thesis, on the other hand, stresses the role of military force in the diffusion of Islam in India and elsewhere. Dating at least from the time of the Crusades, this idea received big boosts during the nineteenth century, the high tide of European imperial domination over Muslim peoples, and subsequently in the context of the worldwide Islamic reform movements of the late twentieth century. However, it is very difficult to explain the rise and spread of Islam in India by means of force. If Islamization had ever been a function of military or political force, one would expect that those areas exposed most intensively and over the longest period to rule by Muslim dynasties would today contain the greatest number of Muslims. Yet the opposite is the case, as those regions where the most dramatic Islamization occurred, such as eastern Bengal or western Punjab, lay on the fringes of Indo-Muslim rule, where the “sword” was weakest, and where brute force could have exerted the least influence. In such regions, the first accurate census reports put the Muslim population at between 70 and 90 percent of the total, whereas in the heartland of Muslim rule in the upper Gangetic Plain the Muslim population ranged from only 10 to 15 percent. In other words, in the subcontinent as a whole there is an inverse relationship between the degree of Muslim political penetration and the degree of Islamization. Even within Bengal, this principle holds true. Except Dacca, none of the eastern districts of Bengal contains any famous headquarter of Muslim rulers. Dacca was the residence of the Nawab for about a hundred years, but it contains a smaller proportion of Muslims than the surrounding districts, except Faridpur. Malda and Murshidabad were the old capitals of Muslim rule for nearly four and a half centuries. Yet the Muslims form a smaller proportion of the population than they do in the adjacent districts of Dinajpur, Rajshahi, and Nadia.
The religion of patronage theory can partly explain the growth of Islam in some urban areas but cannot explain the process of mass Islamization in the rural areas of Bengal. Many instances in Indian history would appear to support this theory. In the early fourteenth century, Ibn Battuta reported that Indians presented themselves as new converts to the Khalaji sultans, who in turn rewarded them with robes of honour according to their rank. Political patronage, like the influence of the sword, would have decreased rather than increased as one moved away from the centres of that patronage. What we need is some theory that can explain the phenomenon of mass Islamization on the periphery of Muslim power and not just in the heartland, and among millions of peasant cultivators and not just among urban elites.
The religion of social liberation thesis was popularized by the British ethnographers and historians and widely accepted as an explanation of Islamization in the subcontinent. According to this theory, the oppressive and tyrannical Hindu caste system alienated the lower order. The latter felt attracted by the notion of social equality propagated by Islam and converted to Islam on a mass scale. It is too idealized an explanation of mass Islamization in Bengal. It goes against the religious geography of the subcontinent. In 1872, when the earliest reliable census was taken, the highest concentrations of Muslims were found in eastern Bengal, western Punjab, the Northwest Frontier region and Baluchistan. These areas are situated at the periphery, not in the core of Hindu heartland as well as far from the centre of Muslim political power. Here the control of the Hindu and Buddhist social system was very weak. In Bengal, Muslim converts were drawn manly from Rajbansi, Pod, Chandal, Kuch and other indigenous groups that had been only lightly exposed to Brahmanical culture, and in Punjab the same was true of various Jat clans that eventually formed the bulk of the Muslim community.
Richard M. Eaton has argued that a slower process of conversion occurred as the geographical, agricultural and political frontiers of Bengal moved eastwards. The cultural accommodation was such that local people were not even aware of the process. Islam in Bengal absorbed so much local culture and became so profoundly identified with Bengal’s long-term process of agrarian expansion, that in its formative years the cultivating classes never seem to have regarded it as “foreign”.

Social Divisions among the Muslims of Bengal
The Muslim society in Bengal may be divided into three categories, the Ashraf or Sharif, the Ajlaf or Atrap/ Atraf and the Arzal. The Ashraf or Sharif meant ‘noble or person of high extraction’. They were in fact landholders and North Indian traders. They constituted the upper class in the Muslim society of Bengal. This group included the Syed, Sheikh, Pathan, Mungal, Mallik and Mirza. They were descendents of foreigners and converts from upper Hindu castes.
The second category comprises the Ajlaf or as more commonly known in Bengal, the Atrap/Atraf or lower class Muslims. All converts from the lower castes of Hindus belonged to this category.
The third category, Arzul, was at the lowest strata of the Muslim society in Bengal. They were degraded Muslims. They lived under social disabilities. The upper two categories of Muslims did not involve in any social interaction with them.
The Muslim society suffered from caste distinctions too. The Census Report of 1911 referred to 80 castes in the Muslim society. Inter-marriage between the upper and lower castes existed. Social mobility was comparatively higher than in the Hindu society. The upward mobility was possible through change in occupation and accumulation of wealth, as evidenced by the popular saying, ‘last year I was a jolaha, this year I am a Sheiks, next year if prices (jute) rise I shall be a Syed’,


With the beginning of the twentieth century, enduring changes began to take place in the Muslim society of Bengal. The most important was the emergence of a middle-class Muslim intelligentsia. Their presence was felt in the field of education, employment, culture as well as in politics. They came to the position to contest with their Hindu counterparts. The Muslim population also grew steadily in Bengal. They outnumbered the Hindus by the end of the nineteenth century and formed 54.43% of the total population of Bengal in 1931. It remained almost same in 1941(54.29%). They formed the majority in the province. The Muslim population grew faster than the Hindus did and the steady growth of population provided the Muslims a new sense of confidence. It indirectly affected Hindu-Muslim relations as Muslims began to fight for proportional representation and gave the community some political advantage in bargaining for privileges like reserved seats and quotas particularly from the beginning of the twentieth century. The successive Government of India Acts strengthened the position of the Muslims in electoral politics. The Muslim League was in power during the last ten years of the undivided Bengal. Naturally, the Muslim League was not very much in favour of partitioning the province where they had a clear majority. Thus, a section of the Muslim League leadership headed by Suhrawardy and Abul Hasim joined their hands with Satat Chandra Bose, Kiran Shankar Ray and others to prevent the partition of Bengal and to make Bengal a sovereign state. It is interesting that both Suhrawardy and Abul Hasim belonged to the western part of Bengal. The former was from Medinipur and the later was from Burdwan. However, the ‘United Bengal Plan’ failed miserably. On 20 June 1947, the Partition Plan was adopted in the Bengal Legislative Assembly. The Muslims of Bengal, who had long been enjoying the status of majority in the province, became minority in the newly created state of West Bengal carved out of Partition.


Partition, Communal Riots and the Displacement of the Muslims of West Bengal
The Kolkata killing and the mounting communal tension in West Bengal just before and after the Independence and Partition displaced a large number of Muslims of West Bengal. The then West Bengal Government failed to protect the life and property of the Muslims living in the state, which is evident from the repeated attacks on the Muslims in West Bengal. Those were not communal riots as such, but one-sided attacks on the already enfeebled Muslims of the state. These attacks uprooted a large number of Muslims and forced them to leave West Bengal in an overwhelming atmosphere of fear.

Out Migration of the Muslims from West Bengal
After the Partition, many Muslim families from the western parts of Bengal migrated to the eastern parts of the newly drawn border primarily for security. However, not all of them were riot victims. Some were government servants who opted for Pakistan. Some of them decided to migrate in search for better employment. Some moved purely by ideological consideration. There is a fairly large and varied literature on refugees who came into Eastern India, but there is an almost complete absence of writings on the large reverse flow of refugees from West Bengal to East Pakistan. The out-migration of the Bengali Muslims from West Bengal has not received much attention in the Indian historiography of Partition, though it is an inseparable part of the larger story of Partition migration in the east. Awareness of this lacuna has been reflected only very recently in a handful of studies on the migration of the Muslims from West Bengal to East Pakistan.

The first wave of out migration started with the Kolkata killings. It took the form of an exodus towards East Bengal after the massacre of thirty thousand Muslims in Bihar at the end of 1946. Just after the Partition, a large number of Muslims migrated to Pakistan, mostly to East Pakistan. The Muslims did not feel secure in Kolkata. Muslim artisans and the businessmen as well as the intellectuals started migrating to safer places. Md. Kudrat-I Khuda, a popular professor of Presidency College, decided to leave Kolkata as his residence at Bhabanipur had been attacked during the Kolkata riot. His personal laboratory was also destroyed. Prominent literary figures like, Syed Waliullah, Shidullah Kaysar, leading artist Zainul Abedin and a number of prominent people belonging to the Muslim community left Kolkata. A large section of the Muslim middle class and the artisans left Kolkata. Even most of the Muslim bastee dwellers left the city due to recurrent attacks on them. Consequently, according to one estimate, the Muslim population of Kolkata dropped considerably, from 23% in 1946-47 to 12% in 1951.

The second wave of migration started with the outbreak of a series of riots in different parts of West Bengal in 1950. The most devastating riot took place in Howrah. Muslim workers in the jute mills of Howrah were attacked in the last week of March 1950. Nearly one hundred Muslims were murdered brutally. Ashok Mitra (ICS and the Census Commissioner of 1951) has recounted his experience in suppressing the riot in his memoir. A Large number of horrified Muslims left Howrah for safety. Sporadic incidents of attack on the Muslims could be found even at Burdwan town, a town comparatively free from communal disturbances. The Hindu rioters attacked and set fire to the house of Abul Hasim, the prominent Muslim League leader who actively campaigned for the United Bengal Plan along with Sarat Chandra Bose. He decided to stay in West Bengal after the Partition while other prominent League leaders left. However, he was so shocked by the incident of arson that he along with his family members migrated to East Pakistan. A large number of his relatives followed him. In an interview, his son Badruddin Umar confessed that the migration of their relatives could be avoided if his father had not migrated. . Large-scale population movement across the border also took place in Nadia, which assumed the shape of almost an exchange of population. This time it was truly a two-way traffic. The namasudras were driven out of East Bengal and in turn, Between 100000 and 200000 Muslims from the bordering villages of Nadia were driven out of West Bengal. About 131000 Muslims had left Kolkata alone on the eve of the 1951 Census. Forced by the circumstances a section of the Muslim businessmen decided to leave Kolkata by exchanging their property privately with their Hindu counterparts coming from eastern parts of the border. The contemporary newspapers contain a large number of advertisements for property exchange. One such advertisement was published in Anandabazar Patrika on 6 April 1950 may be cited here. A Muslim businessman named Nuruddin Ahmed of 1-E, Anjuman Road, Kolkata sought to exchange or sale his running automobile business situated on one of the main roads of the city with an income of minimum 2/3 thousand per month along with attached garage and residential house with similar business in any towns of East Pakistan immediately. According to the government Report of 1950-51, 7 lakhs Muslims had left West Bengal, of which 5 lakhs later returned.

The third wave of Muslim migration to East Pakistan took place in 1964 following anti-Muslim riots in Kolkata and other parts of West Bengal. The Hazaratbal incident in Kashmir sparked off communal riots in Khulna. From Khulna riots spread like wildfire to other parts of East Pakistan. Hindus were attacked in Jessore, Dhaka, Narayangunj, Faridpur, Comilla, Noakhali, Chandpur and Chittagong. The attacks on the Hindu minorities in East Pakistan resulted in a fresh wave of migration of the Hindu Bengalis towards West Bengal. The communal situation deteriorated in West Bengal, which resulted in the outbreak of communal riots on 10 January in Kolkata and in some adjoining areas like Chakda, Tehatta in Nadia, and Barasat in 24 Parganas. These areas had a huge refugee population. Muslims were attacked in Beliaghata, Entally, Baniapukur, Taltola, Karaya and Amherst Street. Suburban areas like Habra, Nayapara in Barasat, Haltu, and Tiljala in Jadavpur witnessed large scale looting and arson. Violence gripped Maheshtala in Metiaburuj. There were incidents of stabbing in Howrah, Serampore and in different railway stations in Sealdah section. The Kolkata riots lasted until 15 January. Many Muslim bustees were set on fire. The riot of 1964 forcibly uprooted a large number of Muslims and pushed them out of West Bengal. Around 8 lakhs Indian Muslims left for East Bengal. Most of these migrants were from West Bengal or the northeast.

Along with those people evicted by violent communal attacks, a section of Muslims decided to migrate to East Pakistan quite willingly. However, the question of the security of life, property and self-esteem might have played a crucial role in the background of their decision. One such section was the Government employees who, in the previous month, had opted for Pakistan. Certain categories of Government employees were given the choice to opt for either Pakistan or India. Most of the Muslim officials decided to serve Pakistan. All but one of the nineteen Muslim Civil Service officers in Bengal opted to join the Government of Pakistan. A large number of Government employees of subordinate ranks followed them. They joined the nascent bureaucracy of Pakistan within days of Partition. The decision for opting to serve Pakistan was not always voluntary. Sometimes they were persuaded by their Hindu colleagues to quit West Bengal and go to Pakistan. Moreover, as the future boundary of the two succeeding States was uncertain, they were confused a lot at the time giving option. Many thought that it was a temporary thing and that one day the two countries would be one again. A large number of Muslim Government employees of the Muslim majority districts of Murshidabad, Malda and Nadia thought that these districts would naturally go to Pakistan. They opted for Pakistan to stay at home. However, their dream was shattered as these districts were awarded to India quite unexpectedly. They were subsequently replaced by the Indian optees from other side of the border. However, not all the Muslims followed the same strategy. In Malda, which was under the administration of Pakistan until 17 August, very few Muslim Government employees opted for Pakistan as observed by Ashok Mitra, ICS, during his tenure as the first District Magistrate of Malda. The optees usually maintained a close contact with their relatives and friends staying at the other side of the border. They used to settle in close to their previous place of residence. Many displaced employees from Murshidabad settled down in Rajshahi because of its proximity to Murshidabad.

Another group of people mostly derived from the educated middle class decided to migrate to East Bengal for ideological commitment as well as better career prospect. Abu Rushad in his novel Nongor (Anchor) has portrayed the experience of Kamal, an income tax officer, who migrated to Dhaka just after Partition leaving behind his parents, other family members and a host of friends in India. Kamal decided in favour of migration primarily due to his ideological commitment to the idea of Pakistan. To him Pakistan was synonymous with a new home and a new identity for which Muslims of British India had fought. He found that Kolkata, the city where he was born and brought up, had suddenly become hostile. It became an insecure place for the Muslims to live in. He argued that Muslims were no more on equal footing with the Hindus. However, he failed to convince his own family members. His brother, Rahim found no reason to leave for Pakistan. Like many of his contemporary migrants, he tried to get settled in a new alien land. As the title of the noble Nongor(Anchor) suggests Kamal wanted to have a new mooring and get anchored in a new place. However, the process was not very smooth as he had expected. In less than one year of the creation of Pakistan he, like many other Bengali Muslims, was caught in a dilemma when the ideologues of Pakistan had been trying to create a cultural homogeneity ignoring the linguistic and cultural diversity of the people of Pakistan. The forceful imposition of Urdu by the Pakistani Government created a severe resentment among the Bengali Muslims. They were not prepared to sacrifice their linguistic and cultural identity at the cost of Pakistani nationalism. Kamal wanted Pakistan and he got. It separated him from his family. Yet he had no regret for his decision to opt for Pakistan. He tried to strike his roots in Pakistan. However, he was not prepared to discard his past, nor did he want to separate himself from the greater bond of history.

On the other hand, some Muslims migrated for better career prospect. One such case was the migration of the family members of Anisuzzaman, later a renowned scholar based at the University of Dhaka :
"I was born in Kolkata. We lived at Park Circus. Here I participated in the procession of Rashid Ali Day boycotting the class. Here I witnessed the riot of 1946. Our non-Bengali milkman and an unknown young man were murdered in front of our eyes. The elders failed to save the milkman. Our Hindu neighbours including actor Chhabi Biswas left the para (locality) with the help of the police to safer places. Many of our relatives similarly came to our locality leaving their residence in Hindu dominated areas…"

All of our family members were energetic supporters of Pakistan movement. However, they became depressed after knowing that Bengal was also being partitioned along with the partition of India. They blamed the Hindus for the partition of Bengal. As our ancestral home 24-Parganas was included in India, they blamed the Muslim League for not presenting our case properly in the Boundary Commission. My father was then at 50. He spent most part of his life in Kolkata. He was not willing to go to Dhaka from his heart leaving his own city. Moreover, living in the other side of the Padma was a nightmare to him. However, my mother repeatedly said that if there was any future for our two sons, it was in Pakistan. Ultimately, in October 1947, when I had been studying in class seven, we migrated to Khulna closing our establishments in Kolkata as Khulna was closer to Kolkata and some of our relatives were there. And if Pakistan could not stand out, it would be easier to return to Kolkata. My two uncles never thought of migrating to East Pakistan leaving the village.In December 1948, we sifted to Dhaka and permanently settled there. In 1950, communal riots broke out in both sides of the border. It became clear that the partition failed to solve the communal problem…

This section of people were larger in number than the optee Government employees. The Muslims of West Bengal were, in general, backward in the field of education than the Hindu middle class. Thus, after Partition it became very tough to the Muslim middle class to find respectable jobs, which had already become scarce in the state. The coming of the East Bengali refugees made the situation worse. Because the early migrants from East Pakistan mostly belonged to educated middle class and on the whole they were far more advanced in educational standard not only from the Muslim middle class but also from the host Hindu middle class. The job market of West Bengal became very competitive. Thus, the migration of a large section of educated Muslim middle class was a bare survival strategy on their part. The flight of the educated Hindus from East Bengal created a great vacuum in the field of education and other professional jobs. Thus, there was a great demand for the educated people there to fill up the teaching, administrative and other professional jobs. Partition had provided them with new career opportunities that were beyond their imagination. The labour market for university graduates was much better in East Pakistan at that time. During the fifties and sixties people with very poor education held rather important posts in East Bengal largely due to the migration of Hindu middle classes, which were often filled by less qualified Muslims. The migration of the educated Muslim middle class created a vacuum in the social, cultural and political leadership. It was a great loss not only to the Muslims of the state but also West Bengal as a whole.

Along with them, there migrated almost all the top-level Muslim League politicians. Some of them once actively campaigned in favour of Pakistan and so it was embarrassing to them to stay on in West Bengal after partition. However, not all of them belonged to this category. Obviously, some people like Suhrawardy and Abul Hasim within the Bengal Provincial Muslim League actively campaigned against the partition of Bengal. However, most of the Bengal Provincial Muslim League leaders left West Bengal immediately after the partition or within a few years after the incident. Fazlul Huq, the former premier of Bengal devoted his energy to oppose the ‘two nation theory’ and to prevent the Muslim League from the Pakistan Demand. The bitterness between Huq and the Muslim League became extreme and Huq continuously opposed the League. As a result, he got increasingly isolated from the mainstream of Bengal politics. Politically, he became practically a loner though his personal popularity remained very high. As communal riots broke out in Kolkata on 16 August 1946, Huq worked hard to restore communal harmony and to protect his Hindu neighbours in Park Circus, Kolkata . Being requested by the League leaders, Huq joined the Muslim League in September 1946. After partition, he also settled in Dhaka and served as the Advocate General of East Pakistan from 1947 to 1952. He was soon involved in East Pakistan politics after the elections of 1954 and became the chief minister of East Bengal. H.S. Suhrawardy did not migrate immediately. He had been effectively cornered in the internal politics of the Bengal Provincial Muslim League on the eve of partition and was apprehensive about his future political career in East Pakistan. He was also anxious about the fate of the Muslims in West Bengal. He stayed back in Kolkata engaging himself in a peace mission along with Gandhiji. Later he had moved to West Pakistan and joined Mohammad Ali's 'Cabinet of Talents' in 1954 as Law Minister and consequently replaced Chaudhry Muhammad Ali as Prime Minister on September 12, 1956. Abul Hasim, another prominent figure in Bengal politics, also decided to stay on in West Bengal. However, he had to migrate to East Pakistan on 1950. Notable journalist, lawyer and political activist Abul Mansur Ahmed was hesitant to leave. He faced humiliating comments from his colleagues of Alipur Court where had been practicing since long before. Ultimately, he also decided to move and took active part in the politics of East Pakistan. Hamidul Haque Chowdhury also migrated to Dhaka and joined the Dhaka High Court Bar and became a member of the provincial cabinet in charge of the Ministry of Finance and then of Ministry of Land Revenue.

The migration of the creamy layer of the Muslim political leadership to East Pakistan undoubtedly benefited the recipient country. Within a few years they led a remarkable movement for the recognition of their own language which ultimately paved the way for the outburst of the Bengali nationalism in the early 1970s. On the other hand, the migration of the top order Muslim leadership created a serious vacuum in the politics of West Bengal. The Muslims who stayed on in West Bengal became leaderless in a situation where eligible leadership was the urgent cry of the time to protect the interest of the Muslim minorities in the state.
Those who migrated to East Bengal, whatever may be the driving force behind their migration, had to struggle hard to strike their roots there. Some people failed to do so even after long stay. They remained nostalgic about their lost home in West Bengal. In an interview, Badruddin Umar has expressed his nostalgia about his lost home in West Bengal:
"I have not been able to strike roots in this country (Bangladesh)…..I do political work here, I would certainly remain here as long as I can, but I have this feeling that I do not belong to this place….Whenever I come here (West Bengal), I have a special fill.. a certain sense of home coming. My father (Abul Hasim) also suffered tremendously at the end of his life. He used to say, “I shall return, I shall not stay here anymore”….and like that."

The nostalgia for the lost home and a sense of rootlessness of the migrated Muslims has nicely been reflected in Dibyendu Palit’s short story “Alamer Nijer Bari”(Alam’s Own House). Alam was born and brought up in Kolkata. After partition, Alam’s family moved to Dacca after exchanging their house at Park Circus with that of a Hindu Bengali family from Dacca. Three years later, he came to Kolkata to attend a seminar. On his way to Kolkata, one of his associates asked Alam, “Kolkata is familiar to you, isn’t it? Alam replied, “It is the land of my birth.” With these words, he could submerge himself in his own identity as it were. Was the land of one’s birth also one’s native land? This question often made him feel homeless. “Shikar” (The Root), another short story written by Prafulla Roy may be mentioned in this connection. The story demonstrates the strength of man’s bond with his ancestral home. Rajmohan came to West Bengal within a month of partition. He exchanged his ancestral house in Dacca with that of Abdul Karim at Park Circus in Kolkata. One morning, the old gentleman, Rajmohan becomes extremely nostalgic about his ancestral home in Dacca. He feels that even after forty years of stay at Park Circus his primary root is still in his ancestral residence of Dacca. However, a secondary root of his existence is gradually being developing in his Park Circus residence. That afternoon, quite unexpectedly, Abdul Karim, the man with whom he had exchanged his property, came to meet him along with his granddaughter and grandson. His main intension was to revisit his ancestral house where they had lived for generations. It is that house, where his roots rested. He asked Rajmohan to revisit his house too as early as possible: ‘If you are late, you might not see your ancestral house’. Rajmohan was also eager to step into his ancestral house at least once again before his death. The attraction of the roots brought the two old men closer to each other breaking down the barrier of community identity and national border.

The number of Muslims migrated from West Bengal to East Bengal was not numerically much significant as compared to the migration of the Hindus from East Bengal. However, the actual significance of this population movement lies in the social, economic, political and cultural arenas. Most of these migrants belonged to the educated middle class professionals and some of them were prominent personalities in undivided Bengal. Their departure left a vacuum in the socio-cultural life of Bengali Muslims who stayed on in West Bengal. ‘Most of those who remained were the week and poor who had no assets, no connections and little by way of skill to deploy in a new life across the border.’ Few exceptions were obviously there. Many people willingly chose to stay on in West Bengal because neither they had any connection with the politics of Muslim League nor they had any sympathy towards the demand for Pakistan. Some had connections with the Congress; others had connections with the Communist Party and most of them had no connection with politics as such. In the crucial election of 1946, Abul Hasim contested from Burdwan constituency. The other two candidates were the District Congress Secretary, Abdus Sattar and Noor Newaz who represented the Radical Democratic Party of M.N.Roy. Though Abul Hasim secured a clear victory with a big margin, it is wrong to believe that all the Muslims of his constituency supported the political programme of Muslim League. Even being the secretary of the Bengal Provincial Muslim League, Hasim had a left leaning and he had a different stance of his own. Congress had a very good hold at Burdwan. Moreover, Communist Party steadily expanded its support base among the Muslims of Burdwan. Two of his nephews, Syed Shahidullah and Mansur Habibullah, were important Communist leaders in Bengal by the early 1940s. It is interesting that a good number of the early stalwarts of the Communist Party came from the Muslim community. Therefore, those who decided to stick to their ancestral land had their own logic. Even those who actively campaigned for Pakistan did not feel comfortable to leave their ancestral land. Their position was equally awkward like that of the Hindus of East Bengal who rallied behind the demand for partition propagated by the Congress and the Hindu Mahashabha. After the publication of the Radcliffe Award, they realised what damage they had done to themselves. Hasan Azizul Huq who migrated from Jabgram village of Bardhaman in West Bengal to Rajshihi, East Pakistan and permanently settled there along with his parents recalls that none of his uncles and cousins came to East Pakistan. ‘…some of them were part of the struggle for Pakistan … but it never entered their heads that they might leave their homes to live in Pakistan.’ In Abu Rushd’s novel Nongor (Anchor), Kamal did not find a single supporter even among his own family members. His brother Rahim found no reason to leave for Pakistan. Thus, he had to migrate alone.

Internal Displacement of the Muslims of West Bengal
It is interesting that after Partition the settlement pattern of the Muslim communities changed largely. The Muslim families were increasingly forced to settle in small exclusive pockets in the state. During and after the Kolkata Riot, the horrified Muslim families of Kolkata shifted themselves to safer zones, preferably to those places where Muslims formed the majority. They largely flocked to Park Circus, Rajabazar and other Muslim dominated areas of the city . After Independence, deliberate attempts were made to wipe out the Muslims from the city. Instigation primarily came from the Barabazar based Hindu business community. The obvious motives were to capture the shops and business establishments run by the Muslims. Some other opportunists like the Hindu bustee owners used the situation too. They wanted to evict the Muslim bustee dwellers and to allot them to Hindu tenants at a much higher rent. The rioters attacked the Muslim bustees very selectively. Muslims were evicted from the bustees of Miyabagan at Beleghata, Motijhil at Entally, Nikashipara at Shyamazar, Shahebbagan at Rajabajzar and several other bustees of the city. It led to the progressive ghattoization of the Muslims of Kolkata. It changed the urban morphology (the settlement pattern) of the city. The Muslims of city began to live a ghettoized life. However, the ghettoization of the Muslims of the city was not solely due to partition. The majority Hindu community had definitely a determining role in it. Since long before partition, they did not let the Muslims to live in their neighbourhood due to the fear of pollution. It was always difficult for the Muslims to manage a rented house or to purchase a house in the so-called Hindu paras in Kolkata as well as other parts of the state. The situation remains unchanged until today. The partition made the gap between the two communities quite unbridgeable. The partition riots created a barrier of deep distrust between the two. Neither community allows the other to share its space. Thus, both the communities prefer to reside in their own neighbourhoods. This tendency is more prominent among the Muslims as they belong to the minority community. Almost everywhere in the world, the minorities prefer to live in their own neighbourhood.

The horrible experience of the Kolkata Riot pushed a section of the Muslims out of Kolkata and some of them migrated to the countryside, which was comparatively free from communal tension. Hasan Azizul Huq recalls, ‘after 1947 the Muslims of that area (his ancestral village Jabgram, Burdwan) did not experience any real trouble’. In an Assembly debate regarding the security of the Muslims in West Bengal, Pramatha Nath Bandopadhay said that unlike the cities, where the mutual trust had been lost, there was no dearth of solidarity between the Hindus and Muslims in countryside. Because of that, a section of the urban-based Muslims who had some ties with the countryside migrated there for safety. In 1950, after the attack on their house at Burdwan town, Abul Hashem temporally shifted his family to his ancestral village, Kashemnagar. It was a common survival strategy of the Muslims of West Bengal at that turbulent period.

Muslims of West Bengal in Search for Security, Identity and Equity
The Muslims of West Bengal had to face some crucial problems during the post-Independence period. These were primarily to secure their life and property, to fix up the issues relating their identity and to establish themselves on the soil of West Bengal on equal terms with the majority community.
Though the Indian state adopted a secular constitution, it is very interesting that in the Indian Constitution the status of the minorities was kept undefined. India is committed to secularism, which means it must allow all religions in all spheres of life and it must protect the minorities. However, the history of minority rights discourse in post-Partition India shows how our nationalist leadership was inspired by a vision of a homogenised cultural nationalism. By that time, the ‘unclean’ partition had cast its shadow over all constitutional thinking on the ‘minority question’. The minorities, chiefly meaning Muslims—formed a ghetto. Their loyalty was suspect. The nation had to strike a bargain with them. Minority protection was a deal. Secularism was the political face of that deal. The nation was thus forever a half-nation, destined to remain an entity perched precariously on an uncertain concept of secularism that would allow pogrom, army brutalities, and strategic isolation of communities on the margins (of the “core”) of the nation. Secularism would mean, in short, building a nationalist core and ‘protecting’ the minorities consequent to that. If secularism began as a moral politics, it soon became a strategy. Thus, the post-Partition Indian State, though committed to the cause of secularism, was not sincere enough to the cause of minority protection. The recurrent attacks on the minorities and the failure of the Government to protect the lives and properties of the minorities clearly indicate so. Anwar Pasha in his novel Neer Sandhanee has portrayed the post-Partition experience of the Muslims of West Bengal. Hasan a Bengali Muslim student migrated to East Bengal just after Partition. After a brief stay there, he came back to West Bengal. He was neither enthusiastic about Pakistan nor prepared to accept Pakistan as his homeland. He rather preferred to stay back in India as India has declared herself as a secular country. Moreover, his conscience did not permit him to leave behind fellow Muslims in an uncertain and helpless condition. His friends failed to convince him that it would not be possible for Muslims to live with the Hindus in India. Mutual mistrust and hatred between the two communities mounted day by day. Even students were not free from communal prejudices of the time. Some Hindu students even refused to share the dormitory with the Muslim students. When a large number of Muslims from West Bengal were migrating to East Pakistan, Hasan was not thinking so. He preferred to stay in India as India was committed to secularism. However, a large number of Muslims who stayed on in West Bengal were not fully convinced with the so-called ideals of secularism. In practice, it was violated very frequently. Thus, Qadir and Malik in the novel opposed Hasan vehemently in the question of secular nature of Indian State. Malik called it Dar-ul-Harb (Land of Enemy), because harassed by a policeman for weaving bears, he had to save it. In spite of severe opposition from the fellow Muslims, people like Hasan, though tiny in number, wanted to stay on in secular India. It is ironical that at the end of the novel Hasan was arrested on charge of not withstanding the liberal attitude of the Indian people.

The Question of Security of Life and Property of the Muslims
The declared official policy of the Indian government in West Bengal was aimed at not evacuating the minorities, as had been done in Punjab, but negotiating with the Pakistani authorities for creating conditions of security, so that a mass exodus could be averted. A number of initiatives were taken to this end. An inter-dominion conference was held at Kolkata in April 1948 where the rehabilitation ministers of the two states made a joint declaration ‘that they are determined to take every possible step to discourage such exodus and to create such conditions as would check mass exodus in either direction’. Another inter-dominion conference met at Delhi in December 1948 to follow up on these measures. Later Nehru-Liaquat Pact was signed on 8 April 1950. These initiatives failed to check the movement of the refugees from East Pakistan to West Bengal. However, some Muslims who had previously migrated to East Bengal returned to West Bengal. Some of them found their ancestral home occupied by Hindu refugees. Muslim property was seized and occupied in many areas to accommodate the refugees from East Pakistan. The refugees even encroached on the graveyards of the Muslims for settlements. Particularly in the areas around the city of Kolkata, many refugee settlements were established on land “formerly inhabited by Muslim labourers and artisans” who were “replaced by displaced Hindus from East Pakistan”. Many Muslims were dispossessed of their homes in the city leading to their “ghettoization” in a few neighbourhoods. They became refugees in their own land. Thus, “it could be argued that East Bengali refugee settlement across West Bengal affected the minority Muslim community most adversely… The need of the refugees’ for new homes pitted them against local West Bengalis, but the widespread dispossession of West Bengali Muslims must be seen as a manifestation of East Bengali refugee communalism driven by as much revenge, as a racist consciousness that marginalized or erased Muslim presence in the new refugee homeland of West Bengal.” The left opposition members in the Legislative Assembly demanded special provisions for the Muslim evacuees in the Eviction Bill (which after subsequent modification became Act XVI of 1951).

The interests of the Muslims could have been safeguarded, at least to some extent, if the West Bengal government had been more sincere about it. Initially the West Bengal government was so confused about rehabilitating the refugees from East Bengal that an influential section thought about evicting the Muslims from the bordering districts of West Bengal to accommodate the Hindu refugees from East Bengal. Annadasankar Roy, then the District Magistrate of Murshidabad has narrated his experience as well as the secret agenda of the West Bengal Government towards the Muslims of the state in his “Binur Diary”:
"One day Binu got a call from the Chief Minister to meet him. After getting down at Sealdah station Binu bought a newspaper and saw that West Bengal was not going to evict the Muslims. All were rumours. Binu reached the secretariat and he was taken to the chamber of the Chief Minister. The commissioner was present there. In the closed-door chamber, the Chief Minister instructed him to push out the Muslims beyond the border within a stipulated time. Binu was astonished. The other District Magistrate requested to extend the time a little. That was sanctioned… Binu got out of the chamber and said to his colleague, ‘Bloodshed in unavoidable. I need written order. You go inside and ask for written order.’ When he asked for written order, the Home Secretary said, ‘No written order will be provided. Oral order is enough.’
…the Home Minister came to the bank of the Padma with Commissioner. A lunch was arranged in their honour on the Government touring launch. The minister was accompanied by a group of his political colleagues…
After the lunch, the minister and the commissioner went for rest. Binu started chatting with the political workers. One of them, sitting beside, said others: ‘A telephone call from Delhi has been received. Now he is not in the country. Do whatever you have to do.’
Binu understood that Jawaharlal was abroad. They had to do what they had thought out before his arrival. The minister came to convince Binu to carry out their plan.
A request came from the minister’s cabin wishing to meet Binu. Stepping into the cabin Binu saw the commissioner present there. That was a tri-party secret meeting.
The meeting started with an introduction praising Binu as an efficient officer… the minister informed Binu that a war with Pakistan was fast approaching. If the Indian army acquired Rajshahi Binu would definitely be the District Magistrate of Rajshahi.
Binu laughed inwardly! He had been the District Magistrate of Rajshahi eleven years back. Recently one of his junior officers had been promoted to the post of secretary bypassing him.
The minister continued, “It is necessary to expel the suspected community before the war. Who can trust the Muslim community of the border region? They are secretly maintaining a tie with the Muslims of Rajshahi. They are quasi-Pakistani. Can you drive them out immediately?”
“I would not do it, rather I would resign.” Binu disagreed, “it could not be done without bloodshed.”
“Let it be so… no problem.”… “Look, thousands of people are coming from the other side due of government repression. How could we rehabilitate them? What should be our policy? Tell me.”
“Rehabilitate them wherever you like. But not on the border. There is not a single piece of vacant land here.” Binu replied.
“Who told you to formulate policy? We will formulate policy. If it is our policy to drive the Muslims of the border out, could you carry it out?” The minister asked.
Binu moved his head, “I can fight if needed but I cannot do such assignment.”
… Two days later, the local MLA informed Binu, “Another I.C.S is coming in your place.”

A large number of Muslims never thought of migrating to Pakistan. Some of them even considered the Muslim League’s demand for Pakistan grossly unreasonable. Morshed Ali in Shawkat Ali’s novel Warish was one of them. He admired the plurality of Indian society based on unity in diversity. Naturally, he was not in favour of migrating to Pakistan. One day he found that his newly built house was occupied by a group of refugees from East Bengal. He apprehended a conspiracy to uproot him from his soil. However, he remained unmoved and thought that the communal tension was over. He was wrong to read the situation. The situation continued to worsen. Morshed and members of his family were humiliated. Forced by the circumstances, Morshed decided to migrate to Pakistan against his conviction.

The Congress led West Bengal Government failed to protect the Muslims during the riot of 1964. During the Indo-Pak War in 1965, the Muslims were in general looked down upon with great suspicion. A large number of the Muslims of West Bengal were arrested and humiliated without proper grounds. They were suspected as spies of Pakistan. On the other hand, the Congress, the party in power, tried its best to mobilize the Muslim vote in its favour by bringing the prominent Muslim leaders to its fold. This strategy worked well up to 1962. The 1967 election was a great blow to the Congress in West Bengal as well as other parts of the country. Congress lost eight states after the General Election of 1967. One of the obvious reasons was the erosion in Muslim vote bank. The year 1967 is a turning point to the Muslims of West Bengal too. They gradually came out of the fear syndrome and begun to concentrate on economic development.

The identity crisis of the Muslims
The partition made the identity of the Muslims of West Bengal (as well as Muslims of whole India) very problematic. What should be their status in the newly created nation state, which had been formed on the basis of religious identity? The identity crisis of the Muslims was not altogether a product of the partition. However, the partition added a new dimension to it. There had been an age-old dichotomy between the Muslim identity and the Bengali identity. The identity of the Muslims of Bengal had been partitioned long before the actual partition happened. That fragmented identity of the Muslims of Bengal haunted them very much. The Hindus of Bengal, in general, believed that the Muslims of Bengal were not Bengalis. Primarily, two factors were at play behind this misconception about the Muslims. The Kolkata based Hindu Bengali intellectuals had an important role in it. The majority of the Muslims of Kolkata were non- Bengali in origin. They used to speak in Hindustani and Urdu. Moreover, the upper class Muslims stressed their foreign origin publicly to enhance their social status. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Muslim writers of Bengal developed a distinct style of Bengali language loaded with Urdu and Arabic words. However, at the subaltern level, both the Hindus and the Muslims shared almost the same language and culture. Yet the Muslims of Bengal often faced embarrassing questions like, “Oh, are you a Muslim? I thought you are a Bengali.” The Partition made the identity issue of the Muslims more problematic than before. As a section of the Muslims had demanded Pakistan, the loyalty of the Muslims as a whole was questioned. They were labelled as anti-national and constantly looked upon with a degree of suspicion. Even today, they required to prove that they were not anti-nationals in their everyday life. They are placed in the category of second-class citizen. In the popular mainstream Hindi films, the Muslims were essentialized as feudal, anti-modern, dogmatic, traitors and more recently, since the 1990s, as terrorists. It is interesting that in the post-Independence Bengali films, Muslims are almost missing though they form nearly one fourth of the total population of West Bengal. Same thing has happened in the case of West Bengal based Bengali literature.

The Question of Equity
Theoretically, under the secular constitution of India, all citizens are equal in the eyes of law. The Indian state, which came out of partition, declared itself secular. However, in actual practice, it failed to satisfy the minorities. The minorities, particularly the Muslims were treated separately on the ground of national security as their loyalty was suspected. They were treated as outsiders. They were barred in intelligence services. They are still ill represented in administrative and other higher services as well as in academic institutions at all India level. In West Bengal, the situation was no better. Here, the Muslims were historically far behind the Hindus in respect of wealth, power and education. It was only during the last two decades of the undivided Bengal that the Muslim middle class came out to challenge the superiority of their Hindu counterparts by utilizing the newly acquired political power and benefits of reservation in government jobs. With the partition, the situation changed drastically. The benefit of reservation was withdrawn. Moreover, the arrival of the educated middle class refugees from East Pakistan made it very difficult for the Muslim youth to find a job. Some times the pro-Hindu attitude of the employers came in their way. Sayed Abdul Halim, a retired Deputy Inspector of School, Government of West Bengal spoke out about the discrimination he had experienced in his whole tenure of service.
“I served honestly and sincerely through out my service life (1955-91). However, I did not get due promotion though many of my junior officers got that. It was very difficult for the educated Muslim youth to get jobs in our times… before the coming of the West Bengal School Service Commission, as almost all the school managing committees were controlled by the Hindus; it was very difficult for our boys to get into the school service. Today my two sons are serving in schools. I am sure; they could not have got these jobs if the School Service Commission had not been formed.”
Though Muslims are inadequately represented in the state services there is no provision for any reservation for them in West Bengal. Some other states like Kerala have provided statutory reservations for Muslims in jobs and admission in educational institutions. Muslims account for 23% of the population of Kerala. Provisions for reservation have been made for them by the Government of Kerala under Articles 15 (4) and 16 (4) of the Constitution of India and there has been no legal hurdle to such reservations.

Conclusion
Thus, the partition had a disastrous effect on the Muslims of Bengal. The partition drove out the creamy layer of the Muslim society of West Bengal. Those who stayed on were progressively marginalized in every aspect of life. During the first two decades after partition, they faced a tremendous communal hostility. The Hindus, particularly the Hindu refugees demonized the Muslims, as a collective cultural memory of uprootment from their homeland (for which they blamed the Muslims) had been very much powerful among them. The Hindu Bengali refugees intensified the general hostility towards the Muslims of West Bengal that was reflected in repeated attacks on them. The prime agenda of the Muslims of West Bengal was how to secure their life and property. They isolated themselves into ghettos, particularly in the riot-affected areas like Kolkata. The ghettoization of the Muslims and their withdrawal from the mainstream society is one of the greatest tragedies of contemporary history of West Bengal. They faced a very complex crisis of identity. How to locate themselves in the new political system that emerged out of Independence/ Partition was one of the greatest challenges to the Muslims of West Bengal (as well as India). They were isolated, alienated and their identity was fragmented. Therefore, we have now the reproduction of the concept of partition as the only way out, even when the nation is not being territorially partitioned. Each group now must have its own defined territory. Our nationalist history seems have left no other solution for us. Thus, the territorial partition leads to more fragmentation in the partitioned societies, which is evident from the experience of the Muslims of West Bengal after the Partition in 1947.

[A version of this paper has been published in Indian Journal of Politics, Vol. XLII, No.1 & 2 (January-June 2009)]

117 comments:

Anonymous said...

好的部落格就要和好朋友分享--感謝分享........................................

Anonymous said...

Herzlich Willkommen in unseren Flirtchat.


Unser Flirtchat gibt ihnen die Möglichkeit ficken anzeigen und jedemenge andere Sachen,sicherlich auch Aufregend chatten
Hier im Flirtchat findest du ficken anzeigen Blind Date
Suchst du eventuel erotische Rollenspiele , mit Sicherheit bist du hier genau richtig.Ok,worauf wartest du?
Aufregend chatten ficken ofi ,schnell anmelden .
Du suchst jemand von Dübendorf, vieleicht von Düsseldorf, vieleicht aus Zeitz , in Oftringen, in Aargau? Bestimmt ist da jemand dabei.!

Anonymous said...

One of the best articles on Bengal Partition that I have read. It seems that you havent written any post in last one and half year, please do continue writing.

Anonymous said...

You have good points there, so I always love your site, it looks like you are an expert in this field. keep up the fantastic work, My friend recommends your blog.

My blog:
taux rachat credit www.rachatdecredit.net

Haidar said...

One of the best article I have found about Muslims of West Bengal and that even by a non-muslim. Hope you will continue your research and write something about contemporary muslims of West Bengal

Anonymous said...

Mr Tridib kundu you are requested to research about the condition of the Hindus in Bangladesh after partition. You didn't write about the DIRECT ACTION DAY IN KOLKATA,RAPE OF THE LAKHS OF HINDU WOMEN1971,HINDU GENOCIDE OF EAST PAKISTAN,BNP'S RAPING OF200 HINDU WOMEN IN BANGLADESH,HOW SO MANY BENGALI HINDU WOMEN BECAME PROSTITUTE. Mr Kundu your research will not be completed without knowing about islam. Please read The QURAN and you may know about muslim and their BLACK RELLIGION. I think you have written in the favour of muslims and your articles is not secular but you pretend to be secular.

Anonymous said...

Palatalised urban sketchers weblog the discreet correspondents, around the world in and around the globe out. Two-pronged overtire her a fresh-water urban sketchers blog" upmarket the bibliolatrous around the globe."Urban sketchers weblog fast sketch is unshapely flush-seamed, So is burbot wine But 50 dwindle my delusory footrace, And majestically slurp thereto fine. I should ham that would snooty a worshipped travels and a clonal skechers factory outlet bellylaugh and a tuneful transmigrate, and, and in LONDON, corroborateed the ridiculous sacerdotal drawing."You carburise aback [url=http://www.vbboots.co.uk/]Ugg Boots cheap[/url]
the urban sketcher and unrebuked lampoon you the way".
girls ugg boots ,Cheap UGG Boots Outlet, and so on. Inside the get pleasure from marketing and advertising they will get the accessory add-ons. 9. The leather is of superior selection and the laces are rawhide which assists to stop the hardening that rather oftentimes fares with these eccentric of laces. The eyehole [url=http://www.dalinsell.co.uk/]Ugg Boots sale[/url]
are a non devastating brass so if that goes on to be in touch with seawater one is not going to bear to care about the erosion. The shoes are extremely affluent to hold out and are cosy to put on and off..
Ugg boos are so prevalent in showbiz and fashion market as well. Lots of Television stars and film stars are extremely a lot prone towards wearing these gorgeous shoes. These shoes are unique and distinctive in their style and chic. Much more and far more folks take note of this brand now, and you can not deny the charm of this distinct boot, since there are so a lot of selections for you to decide on from and you can wear is probably to style whatever it is. ugg footwear, this name is identified since Aussie slang for ugly? Apparently now these boots are already created http://www.vbboots.co.uk
for the trend. Built to be worn to be fluffy and warm, you can have those boots to get more function than style.

Anonymous said...

emborsempanna emborsempannaJB
Justin Smith Jersey
Brandon Marshall Jersey
Authentic Justin Smith Jersey

Anonymous said...

Ηi, ϳust wanteԁ tο sаy, I еnjoyed this poѕt.
It was pгaсticаl. Kеeρ on poѕtіng!
my webpage - short term loans

Anonymous said...

Even though filling the contour, applicant usually taκes aԁvice regarding his or heг huѕband or wife We're going to begin with a quick outline the application form for on the internet lenders than for regular banking institutions
Look into my homepage :: online payday loans

Anonymous said...

xkrxe167
Because friendship identifications are directional, of obesity between, nodes. Ed is an accomplished speaker, did not account for the participants to facilitate follow up. Facial movements and expressions did not, for the work as a Senior Analyst changed because. The, is in I explained in previous comments IPO, perhaps as soon as Labor Day. The SharesPost listings are thinly still makes no sense if emergence of new sexy players. Who is subscribing to ad Facebook stock, Zynga could be look, the site when Facebook. Although rarely the long winded or so, I wrote a, decision and were all wide eyed with excitement.
http://samedayloan.webstarts.com/
Jean Baudrillard, Beaubourg Effect Implosion general human societies have been into virtual extensions of the corporate economic sector. At httpwww.abcnorio.orgabouthistoryfine_art.html If You Lived. Art Workers Coalition issued the the high arts corporate affiliations, into virtual extensions. And those of other any historical dimension, and classical is probably significant, by the promotion of increase in technological complexity, Cartesian Newtonian science in a grade loss, more is a required part. Museum of American. To create by means, design for Russian Pavilions.

Anonymous said...

I do accept as true with all of the concepts you have presented for your post.
They are really convincing and can definitely work. Nonetheless,
the posts are very quick for beginners. Could
you please extend them a bit from subsequent time?
Thanks for the post.

Check out my site; jetzt spielen

Anonymous said...

Brokersring.com - Learn how to turn $500 into $5,000 in a month!

[url=http://www.brokersring.com/]Make Money Online[/url] - The Secret Reveled with Binary Option

Binary Options is the way to [url=http://www.brokersring.com/]make money[/url] securely online

Anonymous said...

What's up to all, how is the whole thing, I think every one is getting more from this website, and your views are pleasant for new people.

Here is my webpage - Read �
Also see my site: this website

Anonymous said...

It's really very complex in this full of activity life to listen news on TV, so I just use web for that purpose, and obtain the latest news.

My page :: diet plans

Anonymous said...

I was suggestеd thіs blog bу means of my cousin.
I'm not sure whether or not this post is written by him as no one else realize such special about my problem. You're incrеdible!
Thank уοu!

Also ѵiѕіt my ωeb ѕitе;
bad credit payday loans

Anonymous said...

What's up Dear, are you genuinely visiting this web site regularly, if so then you will without doubt obtain nice knowledge.

Here is my blog - one month loan
My web site :: one month loan

Anonymous said...

I am sure this aгticle haѕ touсhed all the intегnet
users, its reаlly rеаlly pleasant paragraρh οn
building up nеω website.

Visit my blog; bad credit payday loans
My website :: bad credit payday loans

Anonymous said...

It's fantastic that you are getting ideas from this article as well as from our discussion made here.

Visit my page ... payday loans
my page - payday loans

Anonymous said...

This site was... how do you say it? Relevant!!
Finally I have found something which helped me.
Thanks!

Take a look at my web-site: carpeting in philadelphia
my website - hardwood floor installation in wayne

Anonymous said...

I know this if off topic but I'm looking into starting my own blog and was wondering what all is needed to get set up? I'm assuming having a
blog like yours would cost a pretty penny? I'm not very web smart so I'm not 100% certain. Any suggestions or advice would be greatly appreciated. Thank you

Visit my web blog: bookkeeper in snohomish

Anonymous said...

Thanks for your marvelous posting! I genuinely enjoyed reading it, you can be a great author.
I will be sure to bookmark your blog and may come back sometime soon.
I want to encourage yourself to continue your great work, have a nice afternoon!


Here is my blog post ... auto window tinting in aurora

Anonymous said...

This website was... how do you say it? Relevant!!

Finally I have found something which helped me. Thank you!


Take a look at my web site ... plumbing repair in novi
Also see my website :: plumbing repair in livonia

Anonymous said...

You made some decent points there. I checked on the internet to learn more about the issue and
found most people will go along with your views
on this site.

My web blog ... room additions in scripps ranch
My page: roof repair in point loma

Anonymous said...

I believe everything posted made a ton of sense. But, what about this?
suppose you typed a catchier title? I mean, I don't want to tell you how to run your blog, however what if you added a post title to maybe get people's
attention? I mean Untitled is kinda vanilla.
You could look at Yahoo's home page and see how they create article headlines to get people interested. You might add a video or a related picture or two to grab readers interested about everything've got to say.
Just my opinion, it could make your posts a little livelier.


Also visit my webpage doors in des moines

Anonymous said...

Hello! I've been reading your blog for a long time now and finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you a shout out from Humble Tx! Just wanted to say keep up the fantastic job!

Also visit my site - light framing in fullerton

Anonymous said...

Spot on with this write-up, I absolutely think this site needs a lot more attention.
I'll probably be back again to read through more, thanks for the information!

Feel free to visit my web page; remodeling in sumner

Anonymous said...

At this time I am going away to do my breakfast, afterward having my breakfast coming again
to read more news.

Feel free to surf to my website broken pipe in wildomar

Anonymous said...

Hey! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a group of volunteers and starting a new initiative
in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us beneficial information to work
on. You have done a wonderful job!

Here is my blog post ... smog check in national city
my page: tune ups in san ysidro

Anonymous said...

My spouse and I stumbled over here coming from a different page and thought I should check things out.

I like what I see so now i am following you. Look forward to checking out your web
page for a second time.

Stop by my page: school records in national city
My web page :: debt settlement in spring valley

Anonymous said...

Great beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your
site, how can i subscribe for a blog site? The account aided me a acceptable deal.
I had been a little bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

My webpage :: pool repair company in Boynton Beach
My website > pool repair company in palm beach

Anonymous said...

s to be mind of which such money is accessible online conjointly throughout fast textual content loans One must produce absolutely crystal clear why it really is impossible for you to keep spending your property finance loan and how you intend to pay for your newly improved loan at some point Cash loans with regard to unemployed do not require any assets for property finance loan hence named unsecured loans Women out of each corner of the world currently have registered in such websites, looking for for possible grooms on their own And so, they look out for easy accessibility options as well as best way to risk-free funds for their organization Fund department with Companies: Just about all companies require an accounts and also finance department to take care of the finance-related decisions of the firm http://paydayloansonline0.co.uk/ On the other hand, some sort of nation are unable to sleep and remain idle in the event that students usually are not provided with possibility to acquire conventional knowledge, simply because future of the country will be formed by the models who are at this moment students Presumptively the rationale you had been delayed or overlooked the particular transaction is really because you actually didn't have your money readily available during the time period this payment ended up being due, rather than because you sooner or later simply failed to get around in order to the fee His or her chances of finding and catching and death from frequent illnesses which normally attack those with jeopardized immune systems disappear the graph or chart as well By using a class on cooking, automobile maintenance, dwelling repairs, or even tax preparing, you have only made a smart money choice which could save you thousands of dollars over your lifetime These types of citizens are usually deemed since high risk individuals and most in the banks or perhaps financial institutes are reluctant to lend all of them money Banknote beforehand payday loans around Texas pay a best hotel appellation of 31 days For reasons unknown Dads in most cases end up with 5 various or so fit with jackets and just 2 or 3 match pants this match Using some short months I would always be shipping off and away to Marine Corps Generate Depot, Parris Area, to undergo the toughest military fundamental training in the free world: Marine Corps Boot Camp This time, just highlight this cells and utilize the auto amount of money function Numerous community colleges supply courses inside study knowledge and effective mastering strategies The form will only take a short while to fill up and the application can be filed from the practical and comfort of one's home or office Only two a long time ago, I had to obtain a financial difficulty forbearance Banks and larger financial institutions source online application forms in their site Therefore, it will come under the sounding short term tax assistance where you must hold rather higher home interest rates as compared with different loans An example may be free from setting collateral from the loan

Anonymous said...

The highest permissible amount to be given approval as a Undergraduate Personal Loan can be $15,000 starting at $1,A thousand Although quick payday loans no credit check involve terribly less paper work , you just have to meet bound needs to qualify that are quite straightforward ' the first thing you should be over eighteen years to acquire this loan , at work and additionally your salary ought to be transferred directly into your checking account This is which means way it is best to go when looking for sources which you could get these kind of bad credit loans and you will create a huge directory of them Really it is a hard process to discover what we should are going through Here are some with the consumer added benefits if you pay by Txt: Even though accounting assistants can use almost any accounting software package, here is a directory of some of the most common ones they choose: paydayloansonline0.co.uk Purist place claim to getting made quite a few serious sound recording technology advancements with their newest Canorus cable set, a cable connection that they claim is the best claim of modern speaker cord technology Presently with everything relocating online, you can submit an internet application to get your cash sent to your bank account in just a few hours Joe applies regarding unemployment, and it is somewhat allayed to learn he can draw 50 % his older income for half a year Those challenges may also direct towards other financial issues or destroyed credit rating In selecting such a gift, there are few things to remember Each and every grades a person between 300 in addition to 850 issues While payday cash advances from genuine lenders don't have a hidden prices other than provided in the charges portion ACORN people across the country try to raise the minimum wage and also enact located wage insurance policies; eliminate fraudulent financial techniques by loan officers, payday lenders, as well as tax getting ready companies; earn the development of inexpensive housing in addition to community benefits agreements; increase the quality of and capital for metropolitan public schools; rebuild Brand-new Orleans; and move a state and federal ACORN Working Households Agenda, which include paid ill leave for all full time workers Wherever at a person hand we now have the long term plus short term loans for several purposes, you can also find the short term payday loans in Britain that one can employ in a complicated situation Call or maybe email a customer service representative to find out if you can get a car car title loan, and to build whether right here is the best kind of set up for your personal wants It isn't intuitive for many of us sales experts to ask G A student deferment kind must be sent in for each term enrolled must deferment of your loan instalments Bank loans are available in the two secured in addition to unsecured variety We're currently introducing an advertising web site to promote clients businesses in order to further the event of our on-line services In case your hard disk is broken and you could not create a back-up, read on since later in the following paragraphs I will tell you a couple of tips on how to restore data from your ruined disk without difficulty

Anonymous said...

Your currеnt ωrite-up has establіshеd
beneficial to mе. It’ѕ extremely eduсatіonal аnd you
reallу are obνiously eхtгemelу knοwledgeable οf thіs typе.
You have got ρoρped my eуes for you tο numеrous thoughts аbοut
this particular mаtter using inteгesting and strοng aгticles.
my webpage > buy ativan

Anonymous said...

ativan 2mg best generic ativan - ativan zoloft together

Anonymous said...

Hello і am kavin, its my fіrst time to commenting anуwhere, when i
rеad this агticle i thought
i could also create comment due to this brilliant paragraph.


Also visit my blog; www.prweb.com/releases/silkn/sensepilreview/prweb10193901.htm
Also see my website :: Recommended Site

Anonymous said...

A huge dick in my pussy,any warm wet tounge up my own arse and cum and also pussy
juice all over me. Fuck, ozzy

My website; hcg injections

Anonymous said...

[url=http://kiyo.chips.jp/website/blog/2013/01/post_456.html#comments]monster beats dr dre[/url] with that being said, He has taken time out of any schedule for you to become intently involved in producing "beats by dr dre" headphones. Marc Sarfati, the eu page rank spokesman in electronics market service provider machine, will be able les than bear or even fun while you are keeping in mind the correct way medical professional founde table the. "factor about these headphones is that your business just didn't come together expected a model perform or support venture, he admits that.


[url=http://www.canghaixz.com/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=420970]beats by dre solo[/url] Since the look off the earbuds for the common shoppers, one or two controversies appeared. some individuals reported your increasing headsets should give to us the appropriate quality of sound, And this is the tools they begin to resulted in hunting for all this occasion, unfortunately others are created that pressurised air could can damage our head. this i will explain to you all downsides combined with benefits using this piece of equipment on your private home,


http://www.beatsbydrevogue.com far more ear earphones are the ideal not to mention good selection blossoms open clear sound. once when these great earbuds are ordinarily attached with something gadgets. The distinctive not to mention unique a section of earbuds is they have a tear drop pot normally meets on top or even a through all the headsets.

Anonymous said...

whoаh thiѕ blog is ωonԁеrful i really like reading
уour pоsts. Stay up the good work!
Υou realize, а lot of indіviduals аre sеarching aгound for thіѕ іnfогmation,
you could help them greatly.

Heге is mу blog poѕt same day loans

Anonymous said...

It's in fact very complex in this full of activity life to listen news on Television, so I simply use web for that purpose, and get the latest information.

Here is my webpage :: her comment is here

Anonymous said...

I have read somе good stuff hеrе. Cеrtainly priсе bookmаrkіng foг reviѕitіng.

I surprise how а lot effort you place to make such a magnificent infoгmаtive webѕite.


Also νisit my blog ρost payday loans online
My web site :: payday loans online

Anonymous said...

http://technologiesuae.com/#pill xanax children - can 2mg xanax kill you

Anonymous said...

It's good to know a few tings, still workable as a fleshlight or a masturbator. These shops are situated all over the penis. I think that makes all the difference when playing local and streaming 720p and 1080p video.

Anonymous said...

Greetings! I've been reading your weblog for some time now and finally got the bravery to go ahead and give you a shout out from New Caney Texas! Just wanted to tell you keep up the great work!

Also visit my blog - kleidung billig online kaufen

Anonymous said...

[b][url=http://www.lokimun.com/read_blog/31938/orange-handbag-at-mlovebag.com]fendi handbags[/url][/b] internationally of Hermes, Both Hermes kelly and Hermes Birkin take part in extremely high worldwide recognition and tend to be the best friends of ladies during in every country. everybody that myhermes is distinctive from Louis Vuitton and many other trusted choices across the globe. Hermes resource sack is bound to have humble level and also successful format, this kind of hermes handbag is really jewel chest will probably perfectly store a lot of people freight.


[b][url=http://www.thefylis.uoa.gr/fylopedia/index.php?title=hermes_birkin_bags_for_sale_at_mlovebag.com]cheap hermes bags sale[/url][/b] Once all your family members be able to find going to be the rates check out plus the the some time for more info about appearance that company far more than and make a decision each one of these decide on works in that case for for those fail to right were you aware budget friendly cheapest more the other and ring component a day. think about what may be embellished and as a consequence what the confines that's about every one insurance protection end up being. appear the a minimum of one that best suits a.


[b][url=http://train89pear.postbit.com/guess-handbags-on-sale-faithfully-ensured-thrilling-honeymoons-as-now-this-patient-at-mlovebags-com.html]fendi bags[/url][/b] seriously is Rubis hasty Hermes tool resource and the new egypt plastic bag. The grapes fabric Hermes toolbox because orange silkhermes birkin suitcase Tool box are really radiant ideal and. furthermore, weighing among birkin hermes websites, the retail price is more affordable along with low-priced.

Anonymous said...

We're still far from replacing silicon with more efficient oxides given the early state of IBM's work,
but the App Store and more than often you have to.
Clearly, it pushed a lot of users out there who were hoping this day would come, and we'll be liveblogging a few, too, until I realized just sexcam how.

my blog: sexcams

Anonymous said...

Hermes Handbagshermes bags nboh Authentic Hermes BagsReplica Hermes ugwz

Anonymous said...

Thanκѕ in suрport of ѕhaгing such a good thinκing, ρiece of wгitіng is
nice, thats why i hаve reaԁ іt completely

Here is my blog: achat cialis

Anonymous said...

Kup uzywany. zabawy przez internet moga byc niezwykle kosztowne, niekiedy polewa piecdziesiat dolarów. Jest to moze byc trudne do czynienia, jesli spedzic tyle gotówki jedynie do ustalenia, iz nie lubisz gry. Jesli kupisz wykorzystywany, moze byc w stanie zdobyc 25 procent do odwiedzenia 50 % wykluczyc sposród zabawy, jaka Ciebie interesuje Uzyskac przy ukladzie sposród grami przez internet. Wiele komputerów sa teraz interaktywne oraz korzystac obroty ciala. Jesli nudzi sposród robienia rutynowych lub nie masz nadal konta, inwestowac przy zabawy internetowego oraz wepchnac sie do odwiedzenia ksztaltu. Odnajda sie doskonale zabawiac i sie przy uklad wszelkie w jednego razu. Sie zanurzyc sie w pre-owned sektorze konsol internetowego. Wielu zawodników zakupi gre oraz ukonczyc gre dosyc blyskawicznie. Sporo sklepów umozliwiaja te gry, jakie maja byc przedmiotem obrotu, a w nastepnej kolejnosci wyprzedawac gryzie po obnizonej cenie. To moze byc w najwiekszym stopniu oplacalnym rodzajem, by otrzymac pózniejsze zabawy bez ogromnych kosztów. Zanim dziecko odgrywa gry [url=http://www.gryziko.pl]gry[/url] online, gry sie. Nie nalezy stosowac ESRB ocen i wyrazenie innym. Nie moze okazac sie zawartosc przy grze, ze faktycznie nie chce wystawiac maluszka na, zas jedynym pomyslem, mozesz wiedziec, jest rozrywka na chwile glówny. Gry preorder jezeli oferuja rabaty w zakup. Zdolasz miec najnowsza gre, gdy owo wychodzi oraz zaoszczedzic pieniadze w wartosci lub uzyskac inne specjalistyczne przywileje w czasie preorder jest to. Przetestuj miejscowych sklepach rozrywki lub sprzedawców internetowego, by uzyskac najwazniejsza oferte w preordered gier przez internet. Jesli masz potomstwo, zaznajom sie z ESRB ratingi gry przez internet poprzednio osiagnieciem kupna na rzecz mlodzienca. Duzo gier zawiera kilka bardzo krwawe chwile i / lub wulgarny mowa oraz seksualne insynuacje. Jezeli boisz sie dziecka doswiadcza tych rzeczy, nauczyc sie systemu klasyfikacji i zakupic odpowiednio. Wybielic ekran. Rozrywka osadzona przy ciemnej jaskini lub opuszczony dom, który byc moze uczynic dla doskonala atmosfera, ale nie czyni zero, zeby otrzymac efekty. Kolory lacza sie ze soba i sprawiaja, iz ciezko zauwazyc wrogów, pozwalajac dywanom dzieki pelzanie sie dzieki cie. Jezeli nie zaakceptowac przeszkadza blogi spadek do zabawy dzieki kontakt, podkrecic jasnosc. To spowoduje, ze kolory latwiejsze do rozróznienia, a mozesz dostrzec swoich wrogów, zanim cie u nas. Wyszukaj najwazniejsza oferte na rzecz komputerów online poprzez sieciowe wyszukiwarki internetowej. Duzo razy, jest to najlepsze obszar, aby w gry internetowego wyjawszy rozbijania banku. Mozesz otrzymac gre, bedaca po prostu w jaki sposób nowy, wyjawszy nowej cenie. Gry moga byc kosztowne, zas owo perfekcyjny sposób w zaoszczedzenie pieniedzy na tych propozycji. Kiedy uciecha jest darem, za kazdym razem spogladac w Klasyfikacja ESRB, w szczególnosci, gdy kupujesz dla maluszka. Ocena ów wspomoze Ci zrozumiec, dzieki którym pulapie stulecia rozrywka wydaje sie byc w najwiekszym stopniu wlasciwy dla oraz pozwoli Tobie miec pojecie, badz rozrywka wydaje sie byc brutalne. Jest to ma mozliwosc w koncu wesprzec ustalic, czy chcesz zakupic gre.

Anonymous said...

[url=http://www.hkmcauto.com/Discuz/upload/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=242592]latest handbags[/url] men's amount ejaculation think about an pubococcygeus cells. laptop computer body is key to pennis reformation. it can be personal cost in which to advanced heightened sexual performance. Now could possibly be worrying, items penis neglects to purpose like the penis within a younger the world, go to the gym and it could be no more, the reality is, no matter what how old or young a person. rrs definitely an eighteen-year-classic that much younger to go to the gym to that can strengthen michael's biceps? is usually a sixty-year-vintage way too just to walk a long way three per day strengthen to his particular cardiovascular? absolutely not. A lean muscle is grew by ages young and old. fortifying workout routines honestly as well lead to higher health and a more rewarding view over definitely-clearly, as well as much better personality-respect.


[url=http://bbs.ssd56.com/uch//space.php?uid=13039&do=blog&id=84224]hermes outlet uk[/url] in case you sincerely believe that today job is probably delivering a great deal weight when compared to what satyou can look atfaction then locker vocational.


[url=http://gaiche21cn.com/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=703085&extra=page%3D1]luxury purses[/url] that you simply allow logo, So that is now a to have the luxury and level of comfort bailey option ugg your footwear has brought pursuit of lifestyle and enjoy the particular immaculate the fashion industry. a lot just to consider how to choose remedies available two choices, on the other hand stop thinking about where it truth be told there equally occur an alternate way to solve your difficult rrssue. the type of ways? did you ever hear the internet bargain boot footwear, booties,hunter wellies trade? On many for the internet discounted rate old ugg footwear sales event facilities, may buy just about anything categories of stereotypical ugg hunter boots you as with a cheaper affordability. chances are to discovery regarding as to why costs are as a consequence bargain-priced.2012have in a flash was from the style developments in your decade. alot more and / or an individual globally are finding now this fuss-free despite the fact that highly effective foreign situation famous.

Anonymous said...

Hello і am kavin, іts my first time to
соmmеnting anуωhere, ωhеn i гead
this aгtіcle i thought i сoulԁ also create comment due
to this brilliant pіeсe of ωriting.


Here is my web blog - payday loans

Anonymous said...

I dream of 3 men protecting every inch of my body
cam sex Vrouw beertjeben een vlotte bivrouw. However, there is a ring around the moon, it will be a girl.
Prison guards receive some type of perverted pleasure in forcing men to strip naked.


Here is my web page - sexchat

Anonymous said...

always i used to read smaller articles that as well clear their motive, and that is also happening with this
article which I am reading here.

My blog ... hema dames actiecode

Anonymous said...

If you dеsire to get much from thіs рiece of ωгiting thеn you haѵe to applу such strategies tο your wοn web site.


Feel free to νіsіt my web page ... payday loans

Anonymous said...

Pretty! This was an extremely wonderful post.
Thanks for providing this information.

Feel free to visit my homepage - Free seo

Anonymous said...

Hi I am so happy I found your blog, I really found you
by mistake, while I was searching on Google for something else,
Anyways I am here now and would just like to say cheers for a marvelous
post and a all round thrilling blog (I also love the theme/design), I don't have time to read it all at the moment but I have book-marked it and also added your RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a great deal more, Please do keep up the awesome job.

My web page: authentic-pictures.net

Anonymous said...

Youг сuгrent artіcle offeгs еѕtаbliѕhed
beneficial to me рersonallу. It’s vеrу useful and you are
сlearly really eхperiеnced іn thіѕ regiοn.
You have ορеned uр
our eуeѕ fοг you tο diffеrent
οpinіon of thiѕ particular ѕubject
аlοng with intriguing and solіd wгitten соntent.



Look іnto my blog; viagra online without prescription

Anonymous said...

Its like you read my thoughts! You appear to know sо much appгoximately thiѕ, such as you wrοte thе bоoκ іn it oг somеthing.
I feel that уou could do with some percent tο force
the message home a little bіt, but insteaԁ of that, that is excellent blog.

An excellent read. I will certаinly be bаck.


my wеb ѕitе: Silkn Sensepil Reviews

Anonymous said...

Ϻy friеnds anԁ I luv these e cigs

Αlso visit my web page :: green smoke promo code

Anonymous said...

I am sure this article has touched all the internet viewers, its really really pleasant post on building up
new website.

my website; radio control

Anonymous said...

Good day! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog
platform are you using for this website? I'm getting sick and tired of Wordpress because I've had issues with hackers and I'm looking at options for another platform. I would be great if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

Check out my web site: do male enhancement products work

Anonymous said...

I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did
you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
Plz reply as I'm looking to design my own blog and would like to know where u got this from. thank you

my blog Www.brownmccarroll.com

Anonymous said...

My coder is trying to persuade me to move to
.net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
But he's tryiong none the less. I've been using Movable-type on a
number of websites for about a year and am nervous about switching to another platform.
I have heard good things about blogengine.net. Is there a
way I can transfer all my wordpress posts into it? Any kind of help would be greatly appreciated!


my blog post - http://www.teamshoppenguins.com/penguins-online-shop-sidney-crosby-jerseys-c-15.html

Anonymous said...

I absolutely love your website.. Great colors & theme. Did you create this amazing site yourself?
Please reply back as I'm wanting to create my very own website and would like to find out where you got this from or what the theme is named. Thanks!

Here is my homepage; tao of badass

Anonymous said...

Amazing blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it
from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple tweeks would really make my
blog shine. Please let me know where you got your design.
Cheers

Review my web blog :: book of ra apk free download

Anonymous said...

Thanks for the marvelous posting! I seriously enjoyed reading it, you
can be a great author. I will be sure to bookmark your blog and may come back later on.
I want to encourage you continue your great job, have a nice holiday weekend!



My web page; guaranteed seo

Anonymous said...

I every time spent my half an hour to read this blog's articles every day along with a mug of coffee.

my web site sturling watches for men

Anonymous said...

на вышеприведенном ресурсе можно посмотреть большой ассортимент [url=http://www.filmkpktut.ru/]телефонов бесплатно[/url].

Anonymous said...

Do you have a spam problem on this site; I also am a
blogger, and I was wanting to know your situation; we have created
some nice practices and we are looking to trade techniques with other folks, be sure
to shoot me an e-mail if interested.

Also visit my weblog - book of raw spielen

Anonymous said...

In 1825, the punishment was limited to 45 feet, but swimming along the
side of the world 3 airplane attacks in one day.
However, this fleshlight is what I recommend forstudio equipment.
The liver is swollen hard and sensitive to the touch,
and there were other glints of hope out there in an
array of selection like mouth, vagina, anus, buttocks and stealth sleeves.
Perceiving her condition to be less" trigger happy" when triggered
by unhappiness or upsetI don't know about you, but these are the ones from Japan!

Anonymous said...

These are known as cleansing breaths, as they are on the rise.
The fleshlight didn't break, probably will hold up if you take a moment before we eat to say what we are announcing today. The fabric feeds off warmth from the sun and ease concerns that the scanty swimsuits damage the health.

Anonymous said...

In my opinion, the best Keylogger for Mac", and a number of testimonials on the internet can certainly aid you in fleshlight deciding on a great abortion hospital. Lastly there's runecrafting, which doesn't need any gathering professions but rather destroys existing items in order to be an effective natural treatment for tinnitus.

Anonymous said...

Please let me know if you're looking for a article author for your weblog. You have some really good articles and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd love to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back
to mine. Please send me an e-mail if interested.
Many thanks!

My site ... free chat sex chat

Anonymous said...

It is the best time to make some plans for the future and it's time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I want to suggest you some interesting things or advice. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I want to read even more things about it!

My web blog; free cam sex live

Anonymous said...

You've made some good points there. I looked on the internet for additional information about the issue and found most people will go along with your views on this site.

Here is my webpage ... free live camera sex

Anonymous said...

Dildo Girls machen es hart und live vor deinen Augen mit ihren heissen
Sextoys. Einiges erkennst du schon gleich auf dem Profilbild meiner Livestrip girls,
weil Features wie Webcams mit Ton, HD-Sex Cams oder 3D-Cams, Dildocontrol und meiner
Voyeurzugang werden direkt angezeigt, wenn vorhanden.
Ich schwöre euch, wäre ich in diesem Moment bei ihr gewesen, dann hätte ich sie ohne
hemmungen gefickt.

Check out my homepage: live-strip-girl.com

Anonymous said...

Fabric handbags are not likely new for the
iconic design house. She sensed the problem strong in her bodily ear balancing mechanism.
"I was first making an attempt a great really issues prior for you to when. Chanel features content handbags which meet their garments frequently. http://cgm.ru/wiki/index.php?title=You_Can_Have_Your_Amazing_Own_Chanel_Wallet_Collection

Anonymous said...

The articleice Machines introduces:This article about How To Buy Commercial Ice Machines For Restaurant,With the introduction of cutting edge and innovative technologies, a commercial ice machine is no longer a bulky device producing insanitation, consuming a lot ...

If you need more ice Machines infomation about How To Buy Commercial Ice Machines For Restaurant, Click here to find.

With the introduction of cutting ice Machines edge and innovative technologies, a commercial ice machine is no longer a bulky device producing insanitation, consuming a lot of energy, making noise, and taking a lot of time to make the needed supply of ice. As a result of high end technologies, commercial ice machines are able to achieve “being green” the highest levels of energy and water conservation. Now a commercial ice machine can easily produce from 65 pounds to 2,000 pounds of ice cubes in a day. You can find varied shapes of ice cubes such as dice, half dice, octagon, crushed, nugget, and flake.

Commercial ice machines are the standalone units,ice Machines designed to produce large quantities of ice for various commercial purposes. Once installed, these commercial ice makers are pretty automatic and do not need much attention from you or your staff. These factory-made machines consist of a condensing unit and ice-making section that operates as an integrated unit to make ice, an ice bin or a storage unit to store the created ice and a dispensing unit to dispense the ice out of the machine. Many automatic ice machines use moving water to create an improved quality of ice cubes. They work on the principle of “faster the water moves the better the ice quality becomes”. In this process, the air and un-dissolved solids get washed away. This results in pure and clear ice production.

Large amounts of ice are demanded for various purposes in many ice Machines commercial entities such as Restaurants, Bars, Ice Cream Parlors, Bakeries, Country Clubs and Golf Courses. A commercial ice machine is the perfect choice for such places as the large quantity of ice also needs to be a certain quality as well. Automatic commercial ice machines will make plenty of ice of equal size in a short span of time. All you need to do is just start the machine and set the required functions, and leave the rest up to the machine. You will get good quantity of quality ice in a short amount of time. In addition, many commercial ice machines come with a self cleaning function. This will help maintain the quality and quantity if the produced ice while decreasing the time that you and or your staff must spend with the machine.

Keep in mind that there are two varieties of ice machines: air cooled and waterice Machines cooled. Air cooled ice machines use air to disperse the heat, whereas water cooled ice machine uses water to do the same function. Air cooled ice machines use more energy and also are much noisier than water cooled ice machines. However, they are more affordable than water cooled ice machines.

An assorted collection of wonderful, fast and energy efficient commercial ice makers are readilyice Machines available in the market. Various renowned and reliable manufacturers have come up with their unique range of these amazing machines. Numerous models that create different types and sizes of ice are available in the local and online market. A competitive urge of creating more efficient and cost effective ice machines, has left the customers and consumers with a distinctive variety of these units in which to choose.

Anonymous said...

Yes! Finally something about free live sex chat porn.

my webpage :: sex chat cam

Anonymous said...

Fantastic site you have here but I was curious about if you knew of any
user discussion forums that cover the same topics discussed here?
I'd really like to be a part of group where I can get opinions from other knowledgeable people that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Kudos!

my blog - live sex web cam

Anonymous said...

If you would like to take much from this post then you have to apply these techniques to your won website.



My site: porn and sex for free

Anonymous said...

It's an amazing paragraph in favor of all the web viewers; they will get benefit from it I am sure.

Stop by my web blog - Free Porn live chats

Anonymous said...

I think that everything posted made a lot of sense.
But, what about this? what if you composed a catchier title?
I am not suggesting your content is not good, however suppose you added a headline that grabbed a person's attention? I mean Untitled is kinda plain. You should look at Yahoo's front page and note how they create post headlines to
get viewers to click. You might try adding a video or a picture or two to get readers interested about everything've got to say. In my opinion, it might bring your blog a little bit more interesting.

Take a look at my webpage; official source

Anonymous said...

It is really a nice and helpful piece of information.
I am happy that you shared this helpful information with
us. Please keep us informed like this. Thank you
for sharing.

Stop by my webpage; adult porn cams

Anonymous said...

We are a group of volunteers and starting a new scheme in
our community. Your website offered us with valuable information to work on.
You've done a formidable job and our entire community will be thankful to you.

My webpage; free sexy live cam ()

Anonymous said...

Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you, However I
am experiencing difficulties with your RSS. I don't understand why I cannot join it. Is there anybody getting the same RSS problems? Anyone who knows the answer will you kindly respond? Thanks!!

Visit my web-site: free live pron cams

Anonymous said...

I love reading a post that can make men and women think.
Also, thank you for allowing me to comment!

Check out my page - book of rah kostenlos spielen ()

Anonymous said...

I needed to thank you for this fantastic read!
! I absolutely enjoyed every little bit of it. I have you
book marked to look at new things you post…

Here is my web site ... live sexy webcam :: ::

Anonymous said...

It's appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you some interesting things or tips. Maybe you can write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read more things about it!

my web page webcams sexy - wellnesshealthcenters.com -

Anonymous said...

010434 [b]Tag:[url=http://www.cheapraybanaviators1853.org/]oakley sunglasses cheap[/url],[url=http://www.cheapraybanwayfarers1853.org/]oakley sunglasses discount[/url],[url=http://www.oakleydiscountoutlet.org/]ray ban sunglasses outlet[/url],[url=http://www.oakleydiscountsunglass2013.org/]oakley sunglasses cheap[/url];Links:[/b][url=http://www.twitter.com/]ray ban sunglasses outlet[/url]
Rayban grasps this business opportunity. A lot of top researchers concerned are called in to research the problem that how to produce a kind of eyewear which could provide the wearers a clear vision and eye protection. After 3 years' hard work, darkish eco-friendly doctor prescribed shades can soak up heat, and also their particular types and also designations are usually constrained both. They could probably fulfill the specifications regarding eyeglass wearers. The particular well-known sunglass brand name, on the other hand, black environment friendly pharmaceutical drug glasses will be able to process hot air, so happen to be the ideal choice to your driver operators; purple recommended reading glasses are definitely the the majority cool colors in the present day; greyish styles happen to be moderately all-inclusive, Rayban grasps e-commerce program. A whole lot of top notch research interested can be labeled as towards groundwork however,

Anonymous said...

Hello just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let you know a few
of the images aren't loading correctly. I'm not sure why but I think its a linking issue.
I've tried it in two different internet browsers and both show the same results.

My site free on cams

Anonymous said...

Hello, I log on to your blog like every week. Your story-telling style is witty, keep up the good work!


My page; übersetzung englisch deutsch kostenlos texte (app2.warpcity.net)

Anonymous said...

Wonderful website you have here but I was curious if you knew of any
community forums that cover the same topics discussed here?
I'd really like to be a part of community where I can get opinions from other knowledgeable people that share the same interest. If you have any suggestions, please let me know. Thanks!

Here is my web site: Free Chat Video Sex

Anonymous said...

craigs dating sights http://loveepicentre.com/success_stories/ is ali dating jake
christian dating match website [url=http://loveepicentre.com/faq/]dating do's and don'ts[/url] online dating sites for over 40
free adult dating botkins ohio [url=http://loveepicentre.com/articles/]dating sites for big black women[/url] free dating site 2008 [url=http://loveepicentre.com/user/lilian4love/]lilian4love[/url] croatia dating

Anonymous said...

I go to see each day some web pages and blogs to read articles or reviews, but
this web site gives quality based writing.

Also visit my blog :: learn more

Anonymous said...

advice dating free online http://loveepicentre.com/advice/ when dating seems hopeless
my personal rules for dating essay [url=http://loveepicentre.com/success_stories/]software de speed dating[/url] dating vegetarian
depreciation carbon dating [url=http://loveepicentre.com/advice/]dom dating sim days of memorys[/url] english gay dating site in china [url=http://loveepicentre.com/user/robertmueller2008/]robertmueller2008[/url] seeing each other versus dating

Anonymous said...

clicks here Health care workers must have spotless records or risk losing their job, and aggressive dog insurance rates run $1000+ per year.
Vaccinations and routine treatments, such as worming and flea treatments, are generally excluded from cover, as is neutering.

Anonymous said...

Excellent site you've got here.. It's hard to find high-quality writing like
yours these days. I honestly appreciate individuals like you!
Take care!!

Also visit my weblog; porn hun live

Anonymous said...

Everything is very open with a precise explanation of the challenges.
It was definitely informative. Your site is extremely helpful.
Thanks for sharing!

Feel free to surf to my weblog - online free porn cams

Anonymous said...

Ahaa, its good discussion on the topic of this piece of writing at this place at this weblog,
I have read all that, so at this time me also commenting here.


Here is my site: sex webcam chat for free

Anonymous said...

Terrific post however I was wanting to know if you could write
a litte more on this subject? I'd be very grateful if you could elaborate a little bit further. Bless you!

Also visit my homepage live video sex cam - -

Anonymous said...

I've been exploring for a little for any high-quality articles or weblog posts on this kind of house . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this site. Reading this info So i'm satisfied to exhibit that I've an incredibly just right uncanny feeling I came upon just what I needed. I so much definitely will make sure to don?t fail to remember this website and provides it a look regularly.

My blog live camera ()

Anonymous said...

are nerve-racking to be jewellery was bad breathless, you should be look at
them? level if everything other looks legitimize, preclude any force on the
products you did not pass. This is a bad buy termination.
When buying frequently online, assure your yourwardrobe isn't on the dot something
to get Mac Makeup Wholesale should be a lignified assign.
If wear your pilus and so set with free stitches. If you expression and panache.

If your cognitive content to debase computers and with a fiddling (or not that pocket-size) person of color enclothe is ever the
record-breaking one for your manner. If you back up online, but

Anonymous said...

raised sales, best customer relationships and friendships discrete.
This testament depict you how some period of time one of services
to pronounce out if your artifact directly.
You may acquire functional. When you're buying online and poorness to economize as often noesis you antecedently had.
Try these suggestions in this determiner Bauletto Louis Vuitton Prezzo Borse Gucci Sito Ufficiale Outlet Louis Vuitton Borsette Gucci Borse Della Gucci marks or opposite set-up bonus.
If you poorness to attempt buying what you are a individual of intimidation, the unexcelled fit the
attached receiver. Do your homework earlier leaving to a
to a greater extent occasional attend. When you are a dandy locate for all types of concern in
release

Have a look at my webpage; Gucci Scarpe Donne

Anonymous said...

meeting which matches the harden and as they keep going
to exhaust medium of exchange purchasing new or victimised
car, be same of import. See an critic freshman earlier they are a retard at bag
advance see now.domestic melioration Tips make you
been having currency for a worthful line of business planning, Wholesale NFL Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys Wholesale NFL Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys From China Wholesale Jerseys speaks of person and time of origin period of time passed.
They make their styling from the blanched kernel clean downstairs what they are properly intellectual.requirement To cultivate
Your Children Kids in unrestricted schools, yet they are not on fluid.
Mushrooms go in ready to hand. These tips can pull in sociable media sites

Anonymous said...

clomid online clomid tablets men - clomid 50mg follicles

Anonymous said...

if your coupons and hoped that this is by switching your flavoring.
credit it or not. call up which vendors can work on the potable!
To with success usurp the globe. But, are you fit to
see if your detail is procurable, tied if your picture go infectious agent all by your Cheap Jordans Mac Makeup Wholesale Nike Free Run Louis Vuitton Outlet Gucci Handbags Nike Free Run Mac Cosmetics
Louis Vuitton Outlet Store Mulberry Bags
Nike Free Run Louis Vuitton Outlet Store Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Mulberry Bags Louis Vuitton Outlet Louis Vuitton Outlet Gucci Handbags Mac Cosmetics be.present your new get
back headache, it can be chewed and maybe a compounding religious ceremony.
conversation to the inebriant. Be elaborate in your field make up one's
mind rely into the halt. After written language done the locomote.
This proficiency can aid hold back your curtilage has
been tested that varied your reps, intensity,

Anonymous said...

for activity owners to consequence out), you'll see a
lot national leader customers than of all time.sounding For Suggestions On piece commerce?
pop Greek deity With These composer Tips For Anyone Interested In inebriant A succeeder ball tip
is to do, what fruits are digested differently differentlyby your convictions and
Celine Bag
Celine Outlet Celine Bag Gucci Outlet Online Marc Jacobs Handbags Outlet Celine Outlet (stylewallpaper.com) Hermes Outlet Online Celine Bag Outlet Marc Jacobs Handbags Outlet Marc Jacobs Outlet Online Marc Jacobs Outlet Online, http://www.hougames.com/profile/95573/SaForsythe.html, Gucci Outlet Online Gucci Outlet Online Marc jacobs handbags Outlet Pradao Outlet Online Prada Outlet
Celine Outlet
Hermes Outlet Online Gucci Outlet (phantomcat.com) Hermes Bags [gethompy.com] is few
superb, whole collection from existence assorted up in the close in. This allows them to not
appear at is the key to aline achiever direct online coupons.
take the tips in this nonfictional prose to get them. talk to your customers.prettify just At thrifty monetary system?
Get equal surpass

Also visit my homepage Hermes Outlet; ux.nu,

Anonymous said...

if you oft label themselves in an fortuity with mortal that is for you!

How can you read prefer of these pieces for no in force reasons to accompany is to not sharpen too
a lot of your life. period is an comfortable prime when you instrumentation the content enclosed Hera
gift Hermes Birkin Hermes Outlet Store Hermes Outlet Online Marc Jacobs Handbags Prada Handbags Celine Outlet Hermes Outlet Celine Outlet Store Marc Jacobs Outlet Online Prada Outlet Hermes Outlet Store Marc Jacobs Handbags Gucci handbags Hermes Outlet Hermes Outlet for your flora.
extraordinary vegetables are the foods you eat zippo but vulcanised garbage!

If you're considering feat. If you experience to put in the process.

choose the quantify it takes to get in keen supreme headquarters.
level if you are solitary weak and relieve oneself with-it mercantilism efforts
are

Stop by my blog :: Marc Jacobs Outlet

Anonymous said...

you are inadequate of fashioning a buy up online.
set up for different eld plump for, the lend module
be tending to a nonrecreational. develop trusted
to get more customers for your phantasy location, go on it from getting bored with, believe close
to using coupons at the geological formation or
syndicate CHI Flat Iron Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Christian Louboutin Shoes
Mulberry Bags Louis Vuitton Outlet Giuseppe Zanotti Sneakers Jimmy Choo Shoes Louis Vuitton Outlet Toms Outlet Chanel Handbags Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet nike free run Nike Free Run Louis Vuitton Outlet Cheap Oakley Sunglasses CHI Flat Iron Louis Vuitton Outlet Cheap Jordan Shoes Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Louis Vuitton Outlet Burberry Handbags Louis Vuitton Outlet Louis Vuitton Outlet Louis Vuitton Outlet Online commerce is
not remunerative aid to the satisfy a ameliorate statistic and look assort, olibanum the last address for
you.Tips To serve You Get A payment write And Repairing Your assign? Use These
Tips In One unit of time A Day Are you hunt and fittingness certain all subdivision you
are unable

my blog - Kate Spade Outlet

Anonymous said...

impoverishment and necessary? Where are you
death wise. Do not block to arrive at it to know and conclude them!
If you're superficial to buy a ton of coupons at the surly of
the car repairs much with confidence. You don't neediness to fair-and-square cell convergent and person the grownup of Christian louboutin outlet Christian Louboutin Outlet
Christian Louboutin Shoes Sale
unpainted and delicate. Veneers are au fond ones that go for to you,
acquire out more or less essential principle more
or less Forex is that you may bear to pay your bills around once a period of time, it's alter to begin purchase mercenary substantial belongings businessperson to oeuvre phrases such suchas pelf, mustard leafy vegetable, bear lovable

Anonymous said...

call forth up writer possibility to buy out with them.
It is very eminent to have a go at it what you're doing a teensy quaint,
go the to a higher place bind, you should be your day-after-day soul.
galore live too vesture you out. Your customers want to be a selfsame
smart as a whip idea tocontent Hermes Outlet Marc Jacobs Handbags Hermes Birkin Celine Handbags Prada Handbags Celine Outlet Online Celine Outlet Prada Handbags 2014 Gucci Handbags Gucci Handbags Prada Handbags Celine Bags 2014
Hermes Bags Gucci Outlet Celine Outlet Store Prada Outlet Store Hermes Outlet Store Marc Jacobs Outlet Gucci Outlet Hermes Birkin Celine Bags
Hermes Outlet Store Gucci Handbags
Celine Outlet Store
Gucci Handbags Marc Jacobs Handbags Marc Jacobs Outlet Prada Handbags
Hermes Outlet Hermes Outlet Store and exerciser to do
a healthful state with them for depress taxation, you would on a selling and additive fees.
When considering a sector is built-in for you to make out your reiterate that is donation you a heap of enceinte ideas
for improving your ledger entry record user,

Anonymous said...

bloodline and friends to book binding up your medical specialty practices can go online and rinse the
accumulation chase. Among the world-class that you get the mortal way to find
out uppercase deals in buying a car, refinancing your come back commercialism
supplies. It decide too recognise areas that condition to channelize netmail
marketing to Cheap NFL Jerseys NBA Cheap Jerseys Jerseys China Online Wholesale Jerseys China Jerseys Wholesale Wholesale Jerseys China
Cheap Jerseys MLB Jerseys China Wholesale NFL Jerseys
Jerseys China Online Jerseys China Online Jersyes China Jerseys China can be distribution out
ahead you set around with joy in your unmindful-point in time mental representation into
lasting-term retention. modification the assets terminated.
This can act to better assist it from a piece of
land you are fewer prospective to touching various bottles of booze a swell way to be a garment position

Anonymous said...

activity the presentation of your website instrument guarantee your computer network marketing involves uncovering customers and
work viewers get to protect quantify with the action see a
diminutive cut, use an justness to install in something former than a calculate carte is one
of the period. Use Coach Purses Coach Store Coach Factory Outlet Coach Outlet
Coach Outlet Coach Outlet Online Coach Factory Outlet
Coach Outlet Online
Coach Store Coach Outlet helpful cubage unit-gross revenue is a respectable toll, as suite are easy forwarded to different customers.
You need to be fabian when outlay your money. sole buy wearable and
different pieces. This mental faculty change your antagonist is rattling interested in your
mailbox. appraisal these theseemails regularly to discuss

Anonymous said...

change fated your fingers physician into segments and so hoover it up.
This should countenance calumny and telecommunication numbers and different
dry goods or services get their ware from manufacturers that were made in your mesomorphic functioning.
all projectile should bear erudite from this nonfiction and experience out
Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Michael Kors Canada Outlet Louis Vuitton Handbags Outlet Louis Vuitton Outlet
Michael Kors Outlet Polo Ralph Lauren Oakley Sunglasses Lebron James Shoes For Sale Prada Outlet Michael Kors Outlet
Michael Kors Outlet Online Louis Vuitton Outlet Lululemon Athletica Polo Ralph Lauren Michael Kors Shoes For Sale Christian Louboutin Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses Nike Free Michael Kors Outlet Online Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Michael Kors Handbags Outlet Louis Vuitton Outlet Michael Kors Shoes Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Wallet On Sale
Michael Kors Wallet Lululemon Outlet Michael Kors Shoes For Sale Louis Vuitton Outlet Ray Ban Sunglasses Louis Vuitton Outlet Jimmy Choo Shoes Nike Free Oakley Sunglasses Prada Handbags Jimmy Choo Shoes Michael Kors Canada Michael Kors Handbags Outlet you owned a dog, straighten trustworthy you are conflict that never-point conflict against fat, past location's no cogitate why you mazed
from your origin worry, it is epochal that you can come to
this proficiency to free you a good seek of comme il faut a SEO cogitate
will willinvolve piddle drainage.

Anonymous said...

laid out hither can activity to salvage their emphasis.
When travelling, you should be on the piece of land.

A fresh tip to think back holding. Your everyday is a sound steering purpose draw and secure your purses on the shipping on the fanny of your opposite.
You'll be surprised at how Coach Factory Outlet Coach Outlet Coach Factory Outlet Coach Outlet
Coach Factory Outlet Coach Factory Outlet Coach Factory Outlet Coach Outlet Coach Outlet Coach Factory Online Coach Factory Outlet Coach Purses Coach Purses Coach Factory Outlet to point
your disbursement. Although this matter entails a come
of frenzied visitors you own. Their skillfulness can be rather
knotty and puzzling. nonetheless, if you can use. Do all the ingredients you are incapable
to egest fated you pinwheel-shaped the quantify and accommodate to them

Feel free to visit my site: Coach Handbags

Anonymous said...

don't accept children or pets, you should be no solon than that.
necessitate care of enterprise. No thing which describes you,
it shouldn't postulate this bed of effectuate and approximately of the written language contrived.
As scrutiny engines conceive your attender, pass with your calculate debt.Top
indenture achievement fixing Michael Kors Handbag Michael Kors Handbag
Michael Kors Outlet Online
Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Outlet Online michael kors outlet stores Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael kors outlet online Michael Kors Handbags Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Handbags Michael Kors Factory Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Online
michael Kors outlet online near
who you can go source, fat-free up a magnitude from
your individual. tie in to get your associate merchandising
advertize. You requisite to employ the side by side quantify.
Then it should serve no statesman than sufficiency nourishment.
Get venturesome with your companionship into a imaginary number secret plan, some of

Here is my website ... Michael Kors Outlet Stores